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    CMOS image sensor

    • Author:Durham Technology
    • Release on :2018-12-06

    A CMOS sensor is an electronic chip that converts photons to electrons for digitalprocessing。

    The working principle of a CMOS(complementary metal oxide semiconductor) image sensor was conceived in thelatter half of the 1960s, but the device was not commercialized until microfabricationtechnologies became advanced enough in the 1990s.CMOS sensors are used tocreate images in digital cameras, astronomical telescopes, scanners and nightvision device.

    Faster in data rate--- CMOS image sensor has aphotodiode and a CMOS transistor switch for each pixel, allowing the pixelsignals to be amplified individually. By operating the matrix of switches, thepixel signals can be accessed directly and sequentially, and at a much higherspeed than other sensor. Having an amplifier for each pixel also gives anotheradvantage: it reduces the noise that occurs when reading the electrical signalsconverted from captured light.

    Energy-efficient, and on-chipintegratable---CMOS image sensors cost less to produce than other imagesensors, because existing semiconductor manufacturing equipment can berepurposed for their production. Unlike other sensors that use high-voltageanalog circuits, CMOS sensors employ a smaller digital circuitry that uses lesspower, and are in principle free from smear (vertical white streak in the imagetaken under bright light) and blooming (corruption of images such as whitespots). Since a logic circuitry can be built into the chip during themanufacturing process, CMOS sensors with an on-chip image processing circuitare being developed for such applications as image recognition and artificialvision, and some devices are already being put to practical use。

    More competitive price---- CMOSimage sensors cost less to produce than other image sensors, because existingsemiconductor manufacturing equipment can be repurposed for their production.CMOS’ low manufacturing cost makes it possible to create low-cost consumerdevices. Advances in CMOS technology have made it possible for them to approachtheir competitor in high-end digital cameras and other night vision devicewhile other sensor are not surrounded by transistors and must actively usepower to gather light.